Research Support for HIL Model

The HIL Model for School Renewal is built on a solid foundation of research related to school leadership practices, systems thinking, implementation science, and social networking theory. 

Review the highly regarded work of our Principal Investigators

Review a table of empirical studies and findings by the WMU/HIL research team that supports the School Renewal Model, especially our HIL Project Efficacy Study report. 

Explore the extended research base for the School Renewal Model

Click the bars below to explore the research areas and resources that form the foundation for the HIL Project's key leadership practices and school renewal and implementation processes.

Change Theory


Chenoweth, T., Everhart, R. (2013). Navigating Comprehensive School Change. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis.

Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., Meyerson, D., & Orr, M. (2007). Preparing school leaders for a changing world: Lessons from exemplary leadership development program: Executive summary. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Stanford Educational Leadership Institute.

Fullan, M. (2007). Change theory as a force for school improvement. In Intelligent leadership (pp. 27-39). Springer Netherlands.

Fullan, M., (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Grenny, J., Patterson, K., Maxfield, D., McMillan, R., & Switzler, A., 2013. Influencer: The new science of leading change. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education.

Hargreaves, A., & Goodson, I. (2006). Educational change over time? The sustainability and nonsustainability of three decades of secondary school change and continuity. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(1), 3-41.

Harris, A. (2000). What works in school improvement? Lessons from the field and future directions. Educational Research, 42(1), 1-11.

Holmes, K.. Clement, J., & Albright, J. (2013) The complex task of leading educational change in schools, School Leadership & Management, 33:3, 270-283, DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2013.800477

Kegan, R., & Lahey, L. L. (2009). Immunity to change: How to overcome it and unlock potential in yourself and your organization. Harvard Business Press.

Reeves, P., Bierlein Palmer, L., McCrumb, D., & Shen, J. (2014). Sustaining a renewal model for school improvement. In K. Sanzo (Ed.), From policy to practice: Sustainable innovations in school leadership preparation and development (pp. 267-292). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410 421.

Suiter, D. (2009). Sustaining change: The struggle to maintain identity at Central Park East Secondary School. Horace, 25(2), 11.

Collective Ownership


Adams, W. A., Adams, C., & Bowker, M. (1999). The whole systems approach: Involving everyone in the company to transform and run your business. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence.

Camburn, E., Rowan, B., & Taylor, J. E. (2003). Distributed leadership in schools: The case of elementary schools adopting comprehensive school reform models. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 25(4), 347-73.

Donaldson, G. A., (2001). Cultivating leadership in schools: connecting people, purpose, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Elmore, R. F. (2000). Building a new structure for school leadership. Washington D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute

Goddard, R. D. (2001). Collective efficacy: A neglected construct in the study of schools and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 467-476.

Goddard, R. D., Hoy, W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (2004). Collective efficacy beliefs: Theoretical developments, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational Researcher, 33(3), 1-13.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Collaborative leadership and school improvement: understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning. School Leadership & Management, 30(2), 95–110.

Heck, R. H., & Hallinger, P. (2010). Collaborative leadership effects on school improvement: Integrating unidirectional- and reciprocal- effects models. Elementary School Journal, 111(2), 226–252.

Johnson, P. A. (2013). Effective board leadership: factors associated with student achievement. Journal of School Leadership, 23, 456–489.

Lambert, L. (2003). Leadership capacity for lasting school improvement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Lee, V. & Smith, J.B. (1996). Collective responsibility for learning and its effects on gains in achievement and engagement for early secondary school students. American Journal of Education, 104(2), 103-147.

Manthey, G. (2006). Collective efficacy: Explaining school achievement. Leadership, 35 (3), 23, 36.

Pounder, D. G. (1995). Leadership as an organization-wide phenomenon: Its impact on school performance. Educational Administration Quarterly, 31(4), 564-588.

Shen, J. (2001). Teacher and Principal empowerment: National, longitudinal, and comparative perspectives. Educational Horizons, 79(3), 124-129.

Shen, J., & Xia, J. (2012). The relationship between teachers’ and principals’ power: Is it a win-win situation or zero-sum game? International Journal of Leadership in Education 15 (2), 153-174.

Sindelar, P.T. et al. (2006). The sustainability of inclusive school reform. Exceptional Children, 72(3), 317-31.

Spillane, J. P. (2003). Educational leadership. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25, 343-346.

Spillane, J. P., Shalveson, R., Diamond, J. B. (2001). Investigating school leadership practice: A distributed perspective. Educational Researcher, 30 (3), 23-28.

Waters, T., Marzano, R. J., & McNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement. A Working Paper. Aurora, CO: Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning.

Whitt, K., Scheurich, J. J., & Skrla, L. (2015). Understanding superinendents’ selfefficacy influences on instructional leadership and student achievement. Journal of School Leadership, 25, 102–131.

Efficacy and Implementation Evaluation Reports/Tools


American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, National Council on Measurement in Education, Joint Committee on Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (U.S.). (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: AERA.

Buchholz, J., & Jude, N. (2017). Scaling procedures and construct validation of context questionnaire data. PISA 2015 Technical Report (pp. 283-315). Paris, France: OECD Publishing.

Burns, M. (1998). Interpreting the reliability and validity of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program. Fact finding on the Michigan Educational Assessment Program. Access ERIC: FullText. Michigan.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Heck, R. H., & Thomas, S. L. (2020). An introduction to multilevel modeling techniques: MLM and SEM approaches. Routledge.

Horn, M. L. (2003). Assessing the unit of measurement for school climate through Psychometric and outcome analysis of the School Climate Survey. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(6), 1002-1029.

Institute for Educational Sciences (2010). Request for proposal: Evaluation of state and district education policies and programs (p. 8). Downloaded on May 9 from

Karadag, E. (2020). The effect of educational leadership on students’ achievement: a crosscultural meta-analysis research on studies between 2008 and 2018. Asia Pacific Education Review, 21(1), 49–64.

Kreft, I., & Leeuw, J. D. (1998). Introducing multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ma, L., & Ma, X. (2005). Estimating correlates of growth between mathematics and science achievement via a multivariate multilevel design with latent variables. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 31, 79-98.

Ma, X., Shen, J., Reeves, P., & Yuan, J. (2020 published online). A multilevel examination of an instrument measuring school renewal via teachers. Studies in Educational Evaluation.

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1999). Mplus: User’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Author.

Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., Cheong, Y. F., & Congdon, R. (2004). HLM 6: Hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Scientific Software International.

Shen, J., Cooley, V., Ma, X., Reeves, P., Burt, W., Rainey, J.M., & Yuan, W. (2012). Data-informed decision-making on high-impact strategies: Developing and validating an instrument for Principals. Journal of Experimental Education, 80 (1), 1-25.

Shen, J., Ma, X., Cooley, V.E. & Burt, W.L. (2016). Measuring principals’ data informed decision-making on high-impact strategies: Validating an instrument used by teachers. Journal of School Leadership, 26 (3), 407-436.

Shen, J., Ma, X., Gao, X., Palmer, B., Poppink. S., Burt, W., Leneway, R., McCrumb, D., Pearson, C., Rainey, M., Reeves, P., Wegenke, G. (2018). Developing and validating an instrument measuring school leadership. Educational Studies, 45 (4), 1-20. Published on- line on March 12, 2018, DOI: 10.1080/03055698.2018.1446338

Shen, J., Ma, X., Mansberger, N., Gao, X., Bierlein Palmer, L.,Burt, W., Leneway, R., Mccrumb, D., Poppink, S., Reeves, P. & Whitten, E. (2020). Testing the predictive power of an instrument titled “Orientation to School Renewal”. School Effectiveness and School Improvement.



Barley, Z. A., & Beesley, A. D. (2007). Rural school success: What can we learn. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 22(1), 1-16.

Dill, E. M., & Boykin, A.W. (2000). The comparative influence of individual, peer tutoring, and communal learning contexts on the text recall of African American children. Journal of Black Psychology, 26 (1), 65-78

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African American children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995a). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 465–491.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995b). But that’s just god teaching? The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34, 159–165.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Teaching in dangerous times: culturally relevant approaches to teacher assessment. The Journal of Negro Education. 67, 255-67.

Newmann, F.M., & associates. (1996). Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality. San Francisco: Jossy-Bass.

Newmann, F.M., Marks, H.M. & Gamoran, A. (1996). Authentic pedagogy and student performance. American Journal of Education, 104 (4), 280-312.

Payne, R. K. (1998). A framework for understanding poverty. Highlands, TX: RFT Publishing Co.

Shields, C. M. (2010). Transformative Leadership: Working for Equity in Diverse Contexts. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(4), 558–589.

Evidence-Based Decisions Resources


American Association of School Administrators (2002). Using data to improve schools: What's working. American Association of School Administrators, 1801 N. Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209-1813.

Anderson, S., Leithwood, K., & Strauss, T. (2010). Leading Data Use in Schools: Organizational Conditions and Practices at the School and District Levels. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 9(3), 292-327

Burt, W., Cooley, V., Shen, J., Reeves, P., Yuan, W. (2008). Michigan public school principals’ perception regarding the importance and actual use of instructional data: an ex post facto study. Journal of the alliance of Black School Educators, 7 (1), 75-86.

Burt, W., Shen, J., Leneway, R., & Rainey, M. (2014). Sustaining data-informed decision-making. In Sanzo, K. (Ed.), From policy to practice: Sustaining innovations in school leadership preparation and development (pp. 101-120). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publication.

Carlson, D., Borman, G. D., & Robinson, M. (2011). A multistate district-level cluster randomized trial of the impact of data-driven reform on reading and mathematics achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(3), 378-398.

Celio, M. B., & Havey, J. (2005). Buried treasures. Developing a management guide from mountains of school data. New York: Wallace Foundation.

Cooley, V. E., Shen, J., Miller, D., Winograd, P. N., Rainey, J. M., & Yuan, W. (in press). Increasing leaders’ capacity in data-based decision-making: State-level initiatives in Ohio, New Mexico, and Michigan. Educational Horizons.

Kaufman, T. E., Graham, C. R., Picciano, A. G., Popham, J. A., & Wiley, D. (2014). Data-driven decision making in the K-12 classroom. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 337-346). Springer, New York, NY.

Reagan, T.G., Case, C.W., & Brubacher, J.W., (2000). Becoming a reflective educator: how to build a culture of inquiry in the schools. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Reeves, P., & Burt, W. (2006). Challenges in data-based decision-making: Voices from principals. Educational Horizons, 85 (1). Bloomington, IN: Phi Lambda Theta, Inc.

Resnick, L. B. (1994). Performance puzzles: Using assessments as a means of defining standards. American Journal of Education, 102, 511-526.

Shen, J., & Cooley, V. (2008). Critical issues in using data for decision-making. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 11(3), 319-329.

Shen, J., Cooley, V., Reeves, P., Burt, W., Ryan, L., Rainey, J. M., & Yuan, W. (2010). Using data for decision-making: Perspectives from 16 principals in Michigan, USA. International Review of Education, 56, 435-456.

Shen, J., Ma, X., Cooley, V.E. & Burt, W.L. (August 2016). Mediating effects of school process on the relationship between principals’ data-informed decisionmaking and student achievement. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 19 (4), 373-401. DOI: 10.1080/13603124.2014.986208

High Fidelity and Integrity Implementation


Allen, N., Grigsby, B., & Peters, M. L. (2015). Does leadership matter? Examining the relationship among transformational leadership, school climate, and student achievement. NCPEA International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 10(2), 1–22.

Barnett, K., McCormick, J., & Conners, R. (2000, December). Leadership behaviour of secondary school principals, teacher outcomes and school culture. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education. Sydney, Australia

Blankstein, A. M. (2004). Failure is not an option: Six principles that guide student achievement in high-performing schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press – A Sage Publications Company.

Borman, G. D., Rachuba, L., Datnow, A., Alberg, M., MacIver, M., Stringfield, S., & Ross, S. (2000). Four models of school improvement: Successes and challenges in reforming low-performing, high-poverty Title I schools. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University and University of Memphis: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk.

Bryk, A. et al. (1998). Charting Chicago school reform. Boulder, CO, Westview Press.

Dutta, V., & Sahney, S. (2016). School leadership and its impact on student achievement. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(6), 941– 958.

Eck, J., Bellamy, T., Stringfield, S., Schaffer, E., & Reynolds, D. (2011). Towards highly reliable high quality public schooling. In, J. Eck(Ed.) Noteworthy Perspectives: High Reliability Organizations in Education. Denver, CO: McREL, 6-23

Fixsen, D., Naoom, S., Blasé, K., Friedman, R., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the Literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la ParteFlorida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Network (FMHI Publication #231).

Harnish, V., & Gazelles (firma). (2014). Scaling Up: How a Few Companies Make it...and why the Rest Don't. Gazelles.

Karathanos, D., & Karathanos, P. (2005). Applying the balanced scorecard to education. Journal of Education for Business, 80(4), 222-230.

McDonald, S. K., Keesler, V. A., Kauffman, N. J., & Schneider, B. (2006). Scaling-up exemplary interventions. Educational Researcher, 35(3), 15-24.

Michigan Council for Educator Effectiveness (2013). Building an improvement-focused system of educator evaluation in Michigan: Final recommendations. Downloaded on 4.5.17 from

Miles, K. H., & Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Rethinking the allocation of teaching resources: Some lessons from high-performing schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 20, 9-29.

Newmann, F. E., Smith, B., Allensworth, E., Bryk, A. S. (2001). Instructional program coherence: What it is and why it should guide school improvement policy. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23, 297-321.

Pfeffer, J.,& Sutton, R. I. (2000).The knowing doing gap: How smart companies turn knowledge into action. Boston, MA. Harvard Business School Press.

Reeves, P. & McNeill, P., (2011). School advance performance evaluation system for k-12 school administrators. Michigan Council for Educator Effectiveness: Michigan performance evaluation system adoption finalist.

Reeves, P. (In review). Six characteristics of effective performance assessment and feedback systems for educators. Phi Delta Kappa. Sarason, S. (1991). The predictable failure of school reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schmoker, M. (2004). Tipping point: From feckless reform to substantive instructional improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(6), 424-432.

Tan, C. Y. (2016). Examining school leadership effects on student achievement: the role of contextual challenges and constraints. Cambridge Journal of Education, 25(3), 451–468.

Teddlie, C., & Reynolds, D. (Eds.). (2000). The international handbook of school effectiveness research. London: Falmer.

Waters, T., & Grubb, S. (2004). Leading schools: Distinguishing the essential from the important. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.

Waters, T., & Kingston, S. (2005). The standards we need: A comparative analysis of performance standards shows us what is essential for principals to know and be able to do to improve achievement. Leadership, 35 (1), 14-17.

Worthen, B. R., Sanders, J. R., Fitzpatrick, J. L. (1997). Program evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines (2nd ed). New York: Longman.



Dill, E. M., & Boykin, A.W. (2000). The comparative influence of individual, peer tutoring, and communal learning contexts on the text recall of African American children. Journal of Black Psychology, 26 (1), 65-78

Fields, M. V., Groth, L. A., & Spangler, K. (2008). Let's begin reading right: A developmental approach to emergent literacy. Prentice Hall.

Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2008). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to Intervention and multi-tier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide.(NCEE 2009-4045). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences.

Hoffman, J.V., Sailors, M., Duffy, G.R., Beretvas, N.S., (2004). The effective elementary classroom literacy environment: Examining the validity of the TEX-IN3 observation system. Journal of Literacy Research, 36 (3), 303-334

Storey, A. (2002). Performance management in schools: Could the balanced scorecard help?. School Leadership & Management, 22(3), 321-338.



Brown University, Annenberg Insti- tute for School Reform. Schneider, H. M. (1989). The peer     approach to adult learning. Equity and Excellence, 24(3), 63- 66.

Daly, A. J. (2012). Data, dyads, and dynamics: Exploring data use and social networks in educational improvement. Teachers College Record, 114(11), 1-38.

Degenne, A., & Forsé, M. (1999). Introducing social networks. London, England: Sage.

Elmore, R. F., Fiarman, S. E., & Teitel, L. (2009). Instructional rounds in education: A network approach to improving teaching and learning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press

Grossman, P. L., Wineburg, S., & Woolworth, S. (2001). Toward a Theory of Teacher Community. Teacher College Record, 103(4). 942-1012.

Grossman, P.L., & Wineburg, S. S. (1998). Creating a community of learners among high school teachers. Phi Delta Kappan, 79, 350-353.

Hicks, C. D., Glasgow, N. A., & McNary, S. J. (2005). What successful mentors do: 81 research-based strategies for new teacher induction, training, and support. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Klein, E. J. (2008). Learning, unlearning, and relearning: Lessons from one school's approach to creating and sustaining learning communities. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(1), 79-97.

Lee, V., & Smith, J. (1997). High school size: Which works best and for whom? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(3), 205-227.

Louis, K.S., Marks, H.M. & Kruse, S.D. (1996). Teachers’ professional community in restructuring schools. American Journal of Education, 33(4), 757-798.

McLaughlin, M. W., & Talbert, J. (2006). Building school-based teacher learning communities:Professional strategies to improve student achievement. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

National Commission on Service Learning. (2002). Learning in deed: The power of service-learning for American schools. Newton, MA: Author.

Randels, J., & Carse, W., & Lease, J. E. (1992). Peer-tutor training: A model for business schools. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 6(3), 337-353.

Reeves, P. (2013). In the company of school leaders, in The power of the social brain. Costa, A. & Wilson-O’Leary, P. Eds. New York, NY. Teachers College Press.

Reeves, P.L. Zheng, Y., Wu, H., Shen, J., Ryan, L., & Anderson, D. (2020a). The relationship between school-level social networks and student achievement: An exploratory study. Accepted for presentation at the 2020 American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting. San Francisco, CA: AERA.

Reeves, P.L., Wu, H., Shen, J., Zheng, Y., Ryan, L., & Anderson, D. (2020b). The effect of reciprocal relationship between schools on school outcome. Accepted for presentation at the 2020 American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting. San Francisco, CA: AERA

Saunders, M., V. Alcantara, L. Cervantes, J. Del Razo, R. López, and W. Perez. 2017. Getting to Teacher Ownership: How Schools Are Creating Meaningful Change. Providence, RI:

Schneider, H. M. (1989). The peer approach to adult learning. Equity and Excellence, 24(3), 63-66.

Scribner, J. P., Cockrell, K. S., Cockrell, D. H., & Valentine, J. W. (1999). Creating professional communities in schools through organizational learning: An evaluation of a school improvement process. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35(1), 130-160.

Supovitz, J., Sirinides, P., & May, H. (2010). How Principals and Peers Influence Teaching and Learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(1), 31–56.

Topping, K. (2003). Self and peer assessment in school and university: reliability, validity, and utility. In Segers, M., Dochy, F., & Cascallar, E. (Ed.), Optimising new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards (pp.55-87). Gewerbestrasse, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG.

Wu, H., Shen, J., Reeves, P., Zheng, Y., Ryan, & Anderson, D. (2021). The relationship between reciprocal school-to-school collaboration and student academic achievement. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. DOI: 

Organizational Learning


Bartell, C. A. (2005). Cultivating high-quality teaching through induction and mentoring. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional-transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? The American Psychologist, 52(2), 130.

Bossert, S., Dwyer, D., Rowan, B., & Lee, G. (1982). The instructional management role of the principal. Educational Administration Quarterly, 18(3), 34-64.

Cohen, D. K., & Hill, H. C. (2001). Learning policy. Princeton, NJ: Yale University Press

Cohen, D., & Hill, H. (1997). Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.

Copland, M. A. (2003). Leadership of inquiry: Building and sustaining capacity for school Improvement. Journal of Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(4), 375-395.

Evered, R., & Selman, J. (1989). Coaching and the art of management. Organizational Dynamics, 16-32.

Costa, A., & Garmston, R. (1994). Cognitive coaching. Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc

Costa, A.L. & Garmston, R.J., (2015). Cognitive coaching: Developing self-directed leaders and learners. 3 rd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Positive Core Resources

Cuban, L. (1990). Reforming again, again, and again. Educational researcher, 19(1), 3-13

Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Teacher learning that supports student learning. Educational Leadership, 55, 6-11

Day, C., Gu, Q., & Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational Administration Quarterly, 52(2), 221–258.

Elmore, R. F. (2004). School reform from the inside out: Policy, practice, and performance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Elmore, R. F. (2006, June). International perspectives on School Leadership for Systemic Improvement. OECD Activity on Improving School Leadership: International conference.

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Goddard, Y. L., Goddard, R. D., Bailes, L. P., & Nichols, R. (2019). From school leadership to differentiated instruction a pathway to student learning in schools. Elementary School Journal, 120(2), 198–219.

Goodlad, J. (2010). Goodlad on school reform: Are we ignoring lessons of the last 50 years. Washington post blog. Retrieved from: washingtonpost. com/higher-ed.

Hallinger, P. (2011). Leadership for learning: lessons from 40 years of empirical research. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(2), 125–142.

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Leithwood, K., Louis, K. S., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How leadership influences student learning. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. (Retrieved from the Website of the Wallace Foundation)

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Marks, H., Louis K. S., Printy, S. (2000). The capacity for organizational learning: Implications for pedagogy and student achievement. In K. Leithwood (Ed.), Organizational learning and school improvement (pp. 239-266). Greenwich, CT: JAI.

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Marzano, R.J., Waters, T., McNulty, B.A. (2005). School leadership that works. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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Reeves, P. (2009). Superintendents on a courageous journey. The School Administrator, June, 2009. American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

Reeves. P. & Berry, J. (2008). Preparing, developing, and credentialing K-12 school leaders: Continuous learning for professional roles. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation. Also published through NCPEA Connexions.

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Shatzer, R. H., Caldarella, P., Hallam, P. R., & Brown, B. L. (2014). Comparing the Effects of Instructional and Transformational Leadership on Student Achievement: Implications for Practice. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 42(4), 445–459.

Shen, J. & W. Burt (Eds.) (2015). Learning-centered school leadership: School renewal in action. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing

Shen, J. (1999). Connecting educational theory, research, and practice: A comprehensive review of John I. Goodlad’s publications. Journal of Thought, 34 (4), 25-96.

Shen, J. Gao, X., & Xia, J. (published on-line in May 2016). School as a loosely coupled organization? An empirical examination using national SASS 2003-04 data. Educational Management, Administration & Leadership. DOI: 10.1177/1741143216628533

Shen, J., Cooley, V. E., Ruhl-Smith, C., & Keiser, N. (1999). Quality and impact of educational leadership programs: A national study. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6(1 & 2), 3-16.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15, 4-14.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22.

Tennant, M., & Pogson, P., (1995). Learning and change in the adult years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Wallace Foundation. (2006). Leadership for learning: Making the connection among state, district, and school policies and practices. New York, NY: Author.

Witziers, B., Bosker, R. J., & Kruger, M. L. (2003). Educational leadership and student achievement: The elusive search for an association. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 398-425.

Principal Leadership


Cooley, V. E., & Shen, J. (2000). Factors influencing applying for urban principalship. Education and Urban Society, 32(4), 443-454.

Cooley, V. E., & Shen, J. (2003). School accountability and professional job responsibilities: A perspective from secondary principals. NASSP Bulletin, 87(634), 10-25.

Cotton, K., & Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (2003). Principals and student achievement: What the research says. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Fullan, M. (2001). Chapter eight. The principal. The new meaning of educational change (pp. 137-150). New York: Teachers College Press.

Gao, X., Xia, J., Shen, J., & Ma, X. (2018). A comparison between US and Chinese principal decision-making power: A measurement perspective based on PISA 2015. Chinese Education and Society 51 (5), 410-425.

Glatthorn, A. A. (2000). The principal as curriculum leader: Shaping what is taught and tested. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Goldring, E., & Pasternak, R. (1994). Principals’ coordinating strategies and school effectiveness. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 5(3), 239-253.

Hallinger, P. (1992). Changing norms of principal leadership in the United States. Journal of Educational Administration, 30(3), 35-48.

Hallinger, P. (1992). The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 30(3).

Hallinger, P. (2011). A review of three decades of doctoral studies using the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale: A lens on methodological progress in educational leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(2), 271-306.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (1996). Reassessing the principal’s role in school effectiveness: A review of empirical research, 1980-1995. Educational Administration Quarterly, 32 (1), 5-44.

Heck, R. H. (1992). Principals' instructional leadership and school performance: Implications for policy development. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14(1), 21-34.

Heck, R. H., & Marcoulides, G. A. (1993). Principal leadership behaviors and school achievement. NASSP Bulletin, 77(553), 20-28.

Heck, R., & Marcoulides, G. (1992). Principal assessment: Conceptual problem, methodological problem, or both? Peabody Journal of Education, 68(1), 124-144.

Heck, R., Larson, T., & Marcoulides, G. (1990). Principal instructional leadership and school achievement: Validation of a causal model. Educational Administration Quarterly, 26, 94-125.

Marks, H. M., & Printy, S. M. (2003). Principal leadership and school performance: An integration of transformational and instructional leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(3), 370-397.

Miller, W. (2013). Better principal training is key to school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(8), 80-80.

Mitgang, L. (2012). The making of the principal: Five lessons in leadership training. New York,NY: The Wallace Foundation.

Murakami, E., & Orr, M. (2012). International successful school principal project: Cases of improvement and sustainability in North American schools. Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 15(3), 3-6.

O'Donnell, R. J, & White, G. P. (2005). Within the accountability era: Principal instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. NASSP Bulletin, 89 (645), 56-72.

Owings, W. A., Kaplan, L. S., & Nunnery, J. (2005). Principal quality, ISLLC standards, and student achievement: A Virginia study. Journal of school leadership, 15 (1), 99-119.

Poppink, S., & Shen, J. (2003). Secondary principals’ salaries: A national, longitudinal study. NASSP Bulletin, 87(634), 67-82.

Portin, B. S., & Shen, J. (1998). The changing principalship: Its current status, variability, and impact. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 5 (3), 93-113.

Portin, B., Shen, J., & Williams, R. (1998). The changing principalship and its impact: Voices from principals. NASSP Bulletin, 82(602), 1-8.

Rodriguez-Campo, L., Rincones-Gomez, R., & Shen, J., (2005). Secondary principals educational attainment, experience, and professional development. International Journal of Leadership in Education. 8 (4), 309-319.

Ruhl-Smith, C., Shen, J., & Cooley, V. E. (1999). Gender differences in the reasons for entering and leaving educational administration: Discriminant function analyses. The Journal of Psychology, 133(6), 596-604.

Sergiovanni, T. M. (2001). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective (4th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Shaked, H., & Schechter, C. (2016). School principals as mediating agents in education reforms. School Leadership & Management, 1-19.

Shen, J. & V. E. Cooley (Eds.) (2013). A resource book for improving principals’ learning-centered leadership. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Shen, J. (Ed.) (2012). Tools for improving principals’ work. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.

Shen, J. et al. (2005). School principals. New York: Peter Lang.

Shen, J., & Crawford, C. S. (2003). The characteristic of the secondary principalship: An introduction to the special issue. NASSP Bulletin, 87 (634), 2-8.

Shen, J., Cooley, V. E., Ruhl-Smith, C. (1999). Entering and leaving school administrative positions. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 2 (4), 353-367.

Shen, J., Cooley, V., & Wegenke, G. (2004). Perspectives on factors influencing application of principalship: A comparative study of teachers, principals, and superintendents. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 7(1), 57-70.

Shen, J., Leslie, J.M., Spybrook, J.K., & Ma, X. (2012). Are principal background and school processes related to teacher job satisfaction? A multilevel study using Schools and Staffing Survey 2003-04. American Educational Research Journal, 49 (2), 200-230.

Shen, J., Rodriguez-Campo, L., & Rincones-Gomez, R. (2000). Characteristics of urban school principals: A national trend study. Education and Urban Society, 32(4), 481-491.

Smith, W., Guarino, A., Strom, P., & Adams, O. (2006). Effective teaching and learning environments and principal self-efficacy. Journal of Research for Educational Leaders, 3(2), 4-23.

Tucker, M. S., & Codding, J. B., (2002). The principal challenge: leading and managing schools in an era of accountability. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Ubben, G.C. Hughes, L.W. & Norris, C. J. (2001). The principalship: Creative leadership for effective schools (4th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

VanderJagt, D., Shen, J., & Hsieh, C. (2001). Elementary and secondary public-school principals’ perceptions of school problems. Educational Research Quarterly, 25(2), 39-51.

Wallace Foundation. (2007). Getting principal mentoring right. New York, NY: Author.

Wu, H., Shen, J., Zhang, Y., & Zheng, Y. (2020). Effects of principal leadership on student science achievement. International Journal of Science Education. DOI: 10.1080/09500693.2020.1747664

Wu, H., Gao, X., & Shen, J. (2019). Principal leadership effects on student achievement: A multilevel analysis using Programme for International Student Assessment 2015 Data. Educational Studies, 45 (4), 402-421 .

Positive Core


Arenakis, A., & Harris, S. (2002) Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness. Journal of Organizational Change Movement, 15(2), 169-183.

Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., Meyerson, D., & Orr, M. (2007). Preparing school leaders for a changing world: Lessons from exemplary leadership development program: Executive summary. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Stanford Educational Leadership Institute.

Donaldson, G. A., (2001). Cultivating leadership in schools: connecting people, purpose, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Goodlad, J.I. (Eds). (1987). The ecology of school renewal. The 86th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study for Education, Part I. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Marcoulides, G., & Heck, R. (1993). Organizational culture and performance: Proposing and testing a model. Organization Science, 4(2), 209-225.

Newmann, F. M., Rutter, R. A., & Smith, M. S. (1989). Organizational factors that affect school sense of efficacy, community, and expectations. Sociology of Education, 62, 221-238.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Tschannen-Moran, B. (2011). Taking a Strengths-Based Focus Improves School Climate. Journal of School Leadership, 21(3), 422–448.

Ushijima, T. M. (1996). Five states of mind scale for cognitive coaching: A measurement study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California).

Teacher Leadership


Brown, C., Smith, M., & Stein, M. (1995, April). Linking teacher support to enhanced classroom instruction. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

Cooley, V. E., & Shen, J. (1999). Who will lead: The top 10 factors that influence teachers moving into administration. NASSP Bulletin, 83 (606), 75-80.

Cooley, V. E., Shen, J., & Ruhl-Smith, C. (1998). Factors affecting teachers applying for administrative positions. Journal of Employment in Education, (3), 33-45.

Goldhaber, B., & Brewer, D. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High school certification status and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22 (3), 129-145.

Goodlad, J. I. (1994). Educational renewal: Better teachers, better schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Grossman, P. L. (1990). The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Grossman, P. L. (1994). Preparing teachers of substance: Prospects for Joint Work. Seattle: Occasional Paper No. 20, Center for Educational Renewal, College of

Education, University of Washington. Grossman, P. L., Wineburg, S., & Woolworth, S. (2001). Toward a Theory of Teacher Community. Teacher College Record, 103(4). 942-1012.

Grossman, P.L., & Wineburg, S. S. (1998). Creating a community of learners among high school teachers. Phi Delta Kappan, 79, 350-353.

Hicks, C. D., Glasgow, N. A., & McNary, S. J. (2005). What successful mentors do: 81 research-based strategies for new teacher induction, training, and support. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Hsieh, C., & Shen, J. (1998). Teachers’, principals’, and superintendents’ perceptions of leadership. School Leadership and Management, 18(1), 107-121.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Smith, T. M. (2004). Do teacher induction and mentoring matter? NASSP Bulletin, 88, 28-40.

Keiser, N. M., & Shen, J. (2000). Principals’ and teachers’ perceptions of teacher empowerment. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(3), 115-121.

Leithwood, K. A., & Jantzi, D. (1999). The relative effects of principal and teacher sources of leadership on student engagement with school. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35, 679-706.

Louis, K. S., & Marks, H. M. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19, 245-275.

Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19, 245-275.

Rice, J. K. (2003). Teacher quality: Understanding the effectiveness of teacher attributes. Washington: Economic policy Institute.

Rodriguez-Campos, L., Rincones-Gomez, R., & Shen, J. (2008). Do teachers, principals, and superintendents perceive leadership the same way: A structural equation modeling test of a multi-dimensional construct across groups. Frontiers of Education in China, 3(3), 360-385.

Shen, J., & Hsieh, C.-L. (1999). The instructional goals of the school leadership program: Future school leaders’ and educational leadership professors’ perspectives. Journal of School Leadership, 9(1), 79-91.

Shen, J., Wu, H., Reeves, P., Zheng, Y., Ryan, L., & Anderson, D. (2020). The association between teacher leadership and student achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 31(100357). 

Taylor, M., Goeke, J., Klein, E., Onore, C., Geist, K. (2011). Changing leadership: Teachers lead the way for schools that learn. Teaching and Teacher Education, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 920-929. ISSN 0742-051X,

Wiley, D. & Yoon, B. (1995). Teacher reports of opportunity to learn: Analyses of the 1993 California Learning Assessment System. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 17(3), 355-370.

Xie, D. & Shen, J. (2013). Teacher leadership at different school levels: Findings and implications from 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey in US public schools. International Journal of Leadership in Education,16 (3), 327-348.

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